Author: Shaikh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah
By way of introduction it should be pointed out, both to muslims and non -muslims alike, that this treatise was originally written in arabic to an audience consisting predominantely of men. Furthermore, it was presented to a culture which did not analyse human behaviour on the basis of "sexism", or "feminism", but to an environment which was free of these modern day innovations. This is, perhaps, why the discussion is referred primarily to men. It should be pointed out that whenever the shaikh (scholar) refers to "men" that the discussion can be extended to incorporate a similar, if not the same, observation for women. Although during his life the great shaikh was taught by at least eleven female scholars of religion and would often refer specifically to women in many of his essays, perhaps, on the occasion of this dissertation, he was mainly involved in the sphere of men. Nevertheless, when one is involved in understanding Islam one should never allow anything to enter into discussion which does not have a basis within the Qur'an and the Sunnah (authentic narrations).
Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taimiyyah says:
When a man's heart becomes attached to a woman, even though she is lawfu l for him, his heart will be her captive. She controls him and manipulates him a s she wills. In appearance he is her lord because he is her husband or her posse ssor. However, in reality, he is her captive and is possessed by her especially when she knows his need and his passion for her. Then she will control him in th e same way in which a conquering, aggressive master controls an overpowered slav e who cannot escape from his master. Even worse than this is the captivity of th e heart; this is more severe than the captivity of the body, and enslavement of the heart is much more severe than the enslavement of the body. Verily, whoever' s body is subdued, enslaved and captivated will not care so long as his heart is reassured and is serene. In this way, it is possible for him to escape.
In the other case though, when the heart, which dominates the body; is s ubdued, enslaved and enthralled by love for other than Allah, then, this is inde ed mere humiliation and captivity. It is the humiliating Uboodiyah (enslavement ) that has subdued the heart.
The Uboodiyah of the heart and its captivity form the basis on which go od reward or bad punishment will be incurred. If a muslim is captivated by a kaa fir or is enslaved by a profligate and given no rights, it will not harm him so long as he can fulfil his duties to Allah Azzawajal. Whoever is lawfully subdued and fulfils the rights of Allah Azzawajal and the rights of his master will be rewarded twice. Even if he is forced to pronounce Kufr (disbelief), pronouncing it with his tongue but keeping Eeman (conviction, faith) in his heart, the utter ance will not harm him. But the one whose heart is subdued and becomes an abd ( slave) for other than Allah will be harmed by that even if he is a king. Freedom is the freedom of the heart and al-Uboodiyah (enslavement) is the Uboodiyah o f the heart. Similarly, well-being is the well-being of the soul. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu-alaihi-wasallam) said :"Well being is not how much wealth y ou have; but it is the well-being of the soul."
This, by Allah, is the case when a lawful image has enslaved one's heart . But whoever's heart is enslaved by an unlawful image will earn a torment more severe than any known torment.
These people who are obsessed by images are of the most severely punishe d and the least rewarded. For if one is obsessed by an image and his heart remai ns attached to it and subdued by it, he will be surrounded by so many kinds of e vils and corruption that they cannot be counted but by the Lord of al-Ibaad (th e servants) even if he were safe from committing the greatest Faahisha (obscenit y i.e. az-Zina - fornication). Continuous attachment of the heart1 without commi ting al-Faahisha is more harmful for him than it is for the person who commits a sin and repents of it. Since, afer true repentance the attachment and affectio n vanishes from his heart.2 These people are likened to drunk people or the insa ne. It has been said:
"They said you were driven insane by that which you have a passion for.I replied to them that passion causes more harm than insan ty."
As for this passion, the one who is obsessed by it will never awake unti l the end of time. However, the insane only exhibit their madness during certain periods.
Of the greatest causes of this affliction is the heart's turning away fr om Allah for when the heart senses the taste of worshipping Allah and sincerity towards Him, nothing will be more tasty to it than that; and nothing will be more delightful and enjoyable than that. A human being will not leave a lover excep t to replace him with another lover more beloved to him than the former, or he c an leave a lover fearing some harm. Verily, the heart will turn from a corrupt l ove to a righteous love, or from fear of imparting harm.
Allah Taaala said concerning Yusuf:
Thus (did We order) that We might turn away from him e vil and al-Fahshaah (illegal sexual intercourse)3
Thus, Allah turns away from His abd (servant) that which could be evil for him from the inclination towards images and the attachment to them. He also turns al-Fahshaah (the blatant sin) away from him when he is sincere to Allah. H ence, before he tastes the sweetness of al-Uboodiyah (Enslavement) to Allah and sincerity for Him, he will be forced by his soul to follow it's own passion. Bu t once he obtains the taste of sincerity and becomes strong in his heart, then h is passion will submit to Him (Allah) without any effort. Allah Ta aala said:
Verily, As-Salaat (the prayer) prevents the committing of Al-F ahshaah (the obscene, blatant sin) and al- Munkar (the evil) a nd the Remembrance of Allah is the greatest.4
Indeed, in As-Salaat (the prayer) there is repulsion of harmful things, i.e. Al-Fahshaah (the obscene blatant sin) and Al-Munkar (the evil conduct) and there is attainment of a beloved thing, the remembrance of Allah. The attainment of this beloved thing is greater than the repulsion of the harmful things. Veri ly, the remembrance of Allah is, by itself,a worship of Allah; and the heart's w orship of Allah is sought for itself, whereas the repulsion of evil from the hea rt is sought for other than itself. Instead, it is needed for something else. Th e heart has been created loving the truth, seeking it and striving for it; but w hen the will of evil confronts it, then the heart demands the repulsion of the e vil will because the latter spoils the heart as a plantation is spoiled with wee ds. That is why Allah Ta aala said:
Indeed he succeeds who sanctifies it (his own soul) a nd indeed he fails who corrupts it (his own s oul).5
And He, Azzawajal, said:
Indeed he shall achieve success who sanctifies himself and brings to mind the name of Allah and performs salaat (praye r).6
And He, Azzawajal, said:
Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and to protect their private parts from sin. That is more sanctifying for them...7
And He, Azzawajal, said:
And had it not been for the grace of Allah and His mer cy upon you, not one of you would ever have been sanctified. 8
Thus Allah Ta aala made the lowering of the gaze and the protection of the sexual organs from Az-Zinaa (fornication) as the strongest sanctification of the soul.
He also showed that avoiding blatant sins is a part of the sanctification of the soul. The sanctification of the soul comprises keeping away from all ev ils including blatant sins, injustice, shirk (associating partners with Allah Az zawajal) and lying.
The same is true for one who is seeking leadership and dominion on eart h. His heart is a slave to those who help him with his aim although he, in appea rance, is their leader and the obeyed one among them. In reality he has hope in them and fears them. He would offer them wealth and countries, and would overloo k what they have wrongly commited so that they would obey and help him with his aims. In appearance he is an obeyed leader while in fact he is their obedient sl ave.
The fact of the matter is that both of them manifest worship for each ot her and both of them have gone away from the actual worship of Allah. Moreover, if their mutual help is for an unjust dominion on earth, then they are on the le vel of those who mutually help each other to commit al-Faahishah (the blatant sins) or to cut off the way. Hence, each one of them, who originally was a slave a nd obsessed by his passion, becomes subdued by the other.
The same is the case of the one who strives for wealth; this wealth can obsess and subdue him. However, wealth is of two types: one type is that for whi ch al-'Abd (the servant) has a need, such as food, drink, shelter and marital li fe. This type should be asked for from Allah and should be sought for His pleasu re. Thus, this wealth, which a person uses for his needs, is of the same level a s his donkey which he rides, or his mat, on which he sits. Furthermore, it shoul d be regarded on the same level as a water closet in which he satisfies his need without becoming subdued or dismayed by it. Allah Ta' aala said:
Irritable (discontented) when evil touches him and niggard ly when good touches him.9
The other type of wealth is that which al-Abd (the servant) does not ne ed for his necessities. He should not attach his heart to this type of wealth. F or if he does attach his heart to it, he becomes subdued by it. Furthermore, he might begin relying upon other than Allah. Then, nothing of the actual worship w hich is due to Allah nor of the true reliance upon Allah will remain with him. I nstead, he will be pursuing a branch of worship of other than Allah and a brach of reliance upon other than Allah. This person is the most deserving of the sayi ng of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu-alaihi-wasallam): "May the worshipper of ad-Dirham be wretched. May the worshipper of ad-Dinar be wretched. May the wo rshipper of velvet cloth be wretched. May the worshipper of silk cloth be wretched."10
This person is indeed a slave of these objects. For if he asks Allah for these objects and if Allah grants him what he has requested, then he is please d. But if Allah denies him what he has asked for, he is upset. However, the true abd (servant) of Allah is the one who is pleased with what Allah and his Messe nger love and hates what is hated by Allah and his Messenger and will make alleg iance with the Awliyaa Allah (those near to Allah) and take for enemies the enem ies of Allah.
This is the person who has completed his Eeman (faith, conviction) as na rrated in the hadeeth: "Whoever loves for Allah, hates for Allah, and gives for Allah and denies for Allah has indeed completed Eeman."11 and he said: "The most strong of al-Eeman's (Faith's) ties is loving for the sake of Allah and hati ng for the sake of Allah."12
1. That is when the person is not mindful of Allah and not even striving to rem ove it (the image) from his own soul so that his Uboodiyah becomes purely since rely for his Lord. Thus in this case it cannot be considered an absolute evil and, hence, it cannot be more harmful than that which was mentioned about the other case. (Al-Albaanee).
2. That is because the continuous attachment of the heart to the image, according to the above detail, must force the person to disobey the Shareeah even in an aspect which is not directly related to the greatest Faahisha (blatant sin) s uch as neglecting some of his own personal obligations or those of whom he supports. (Al-Albaanee).
3. Surah Yusuf 12:24
4. Surah Ankabut 29:45
5. Sur ah Shams 91:10
6. Surah Ala 87:14-15
7. Surah Nur 24:30
8. S urah Nur 24:21
9. Surah Maaarij 70:20-21
10. Reported by [Bukhari & Ibn Majah] from Abu Hurairah.
11. Reported by [Abu Dawud] and it has good isnad (chain of narration).
12. Reported by [Ahmed & at-Tabarani] and it is Hasan.
Ibn 'Uyayna commented: The greatest favour Allaah has bestowed on His slaves is their knowledge and realisation of "There is no deity but Allaah", and that to the dwellers of Paradise it is like cool water to the people of this world. [Kalimat Al-Ikhlaas by Ibn Rajab pp.52-53]
Ibn Rajab says in enumerating the merits of the kalima: That Paradise is its reward, that its utterance before death will cause one to be admitted to Paradise, it is a refuge from Hell, it causes forgiveness, it is the best of the good deeds; it washes away sins and vices, revives ones's faith when it has faded away and outweighs sins. It traverses all barriers in order to be accepted by Allaah the Almighty. It is the statement whose pronouncer will be accepted by Him, and it is the best proclamation ever uttered by the prophets. It is the best celebration of His praises, the best of deeds, and its multiplication into good deeds is the greatest. It is tantamount to setting slaves free. It is a protection against shaitaan. It is safety amidst the darkness of the grave and the terror of Resurection. It is the motto of the believers when they emerge out of their tombs. The eight doors of Paradise will be accessible to its pronouncer. Further, the people who pronounce it are certain to quit Hell even after they have been cast into it for falling short of observing its obligations. [Kalimat Al- Ikhlaas by Ibn Rajab pp. 54-66]
Hope and Avidity
Mankind differs to a great extent in Al-'Uboodiyah to Allah. Their differences are a quantative disparity in the reality of al-Eemaan. In this regard they are often two types: general, and specific. Consequently, their perception of the divinity of Ar-Rabb is also of two types: vague, and detailed.
Thus, ash-Shirk in this Ummah is more hidden than the crawling of ants.
The Messenger said, "May the worshipper of Ad- Dirham be wretched. May the worshipper of Ad- Deenaar be wretched. May the worshipper of velvet cloth be wretched. May the worshipper of silk cloth be wretched. May he be wretched and disappointed. When such a one is pierced with thorns they cannot be extracted. When he is granted (what he desires), he is pleased; and when he is denied, he is displeased..." [Bukhaaree & Ibn Maajah upon Abu Hurayrah (R)]
The Messenger labelled such a person: The worshipper of ...; mentioned his curse and his condition. Neither did he attain his aim, nor did he escape the harm.
And among them are some who accuse you (O Muhammad ) in the matter of (the distribution of) the alms. If they are given part thereof, they are pleased; but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged! [At-Tawbah ayah 58]
Thus their contentment is for other than Allaah and their rage is for other than Allaah. [These are the hypocrites whom Allaah has mentioned in the rest of the verses. See Zaad Al-Maseer by Imaam Ibn Al-Jawzee, Vol. 3, p.454]
He is therefore the 'Abd of that which he desires: leadership, certain image, or any desire of the soul. The heart is the 'Abd of whatever enslaves it and subdues it. [Al-'Uboodiyah, part 1, by Ibn Taymiyah]
If he renounces anything he will not seek it and will not have avidity for it. His heart will not be in need of it nor will it be in need of the person who would accomplish it for him.
'Umar ibn Al-Khattaab (RA) said, "Avidity is poverty, and renunciation is richness. If one of you renounces anything he will dispense with it."
Al-Khaleel, Ibraheem (AS) said:
. . So seek from Allaah (Alone) your subsistence and worship Him (Alone), and be grateful to Him. To Him (Alone) will be your return. [Al-'Ankaboot ayah 17]
Al-'Abd must have subsistence. He is in need of that. If he seeks his subsistence from Allaah, he becomes an 'Abd for Allaah, but if he seeks it from a created being, he becomes an 'Abd for that created being and in need of him. That is why begging from a created being was forbidden in principle but is allowed for under necessity.
The Messenger said, "One of you would still be begging until he comes on the Day of Resurrection without a bit of flesh on his face." [Bukhaaree, Muslim, an-Nasaa'ee upon 'Abdullaah ibn 'Umar (R)]
The Messenger (sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, "Whoever begged from people while having enough, his begging will be scratches on his face." [at- Tabaraanee upon Jaabir (R)]
The Messenger said, "Begging is forbidden except when there is a great debt, suffering injury, or abasing poverty." [Abu Daawood & al-Bayhaqee upon Anas (R)]
The Messenger said, "It is much better for one of you to take his rope and go to chop wood (for his livelihood) than to beg from people, whether they give him anything or deny him." [Bukhaaree, Ibn Maajah & others upon Az-Zubayr ibn Al-'Awwaam (RA)
The Messenger said, "Whoever dispenses (with anything), Allaah shall enrich him. Whoever seeks chastity, Allaah will make him chaste. Whoever perseveres, Allaah will provide him with patience. No one has been given such a gift better and more ample than patience." [Bukhaaree, Muslim, Maalik, Abu Daawodd, an-Nasaa'ee, at-Tirmidthee upon Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree (RA)]
In Saheeh Muslim and other books, upon 'Awf ibn Maalik it is reported that the Messenger when he accepted his pledge of allegience together with a group of people, whispered to them a secret word, "Do not ask people for anything." Thereafter, when a whip used to drop from the hand of a person of this group, they would not say to anyone, "Hand it to me."
.. So when you finish from your occupation, then stand up for Allaah's worship, and to your Lord (alone) turn (all your intentions and hopes and) your invocations. [Ash-Sharh ayaat 7-8]
The Messenger said to Ibn 'Abbaas (R), "...and if you ever should ask someone for something, then ask Allaah, and if you ever should seek help from someone, then seek it from Allaah" [At-Tirmidthee, Ahmad, & al-Haakim - this hadeeth is Hasan by virtue of another hadeeth.]
He should not request his subsistence except from Allaah and should not refer in his complaint except to Allaah alone as Ya'qoob (AS) said:
...I complain of my grief and sorrow only to Allaah. [Yoosuf ayah 86]
Allaah Ta'aala mentioned in al-Qur'aan nice banishment, gracious forgiueness and fine patience. It was said that: Nice banishment is a banishment without hurting anyone, gracious forgiveness is a forgiving without blaming anyone, and fine patience is a patience without complaining to any created being.
When it was read for Ahmad ibn Hanbal during his sickness that Taawoos used to hate the moaning of a sick man and used to say, "It is a complaint," therafter Ahmad would not groan until he died.
Complaint to the Creator does not contradict fine patience.
...Then a fine patience is most fitting for me...[Yoosuf ayah 83]
...I complain of my grief and sorrow only to Allaah... [Yoosuf ayah 86]
'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (RA) was once reciting in Fajr surat Yoonus, Yoosuf and an-Nahl. When he passed this ayah in his recitation, he cried until his sob was heard in the last rows.
Supplication of Moosaa (A)
"O Allaah! It is for You, all praises and thanks. It is for You the complaint, and it is You Whom we ask for help, from You we seek rescue, on You we rely, and there is no strength for anyone nor power except from You."
The more the ambition of Al-'Abd becomes avid for the graciousness of Allaah and His Mercy to accomplish his need and prevent harm from him, the stronger becomes his 'Uboodiyah to Allaah, and the larger becomes the extent of his freedom from other than Allaah.
Hope must be in Allaah and not in anything created, eg., leadership position, followers, wealth, etc.
...And put your trust in the Living One, Who will never die, and celebrate praises and thanks and sufficient is He to be acquainted with the sins of His 'Ibaad. [ al-Furqaan ayah 58]
Thus, whoever attaches his heart to created beings in order for them to render him victorious or to provide him with sustenance or even to guide him, his heart will submit to them (created beings), and he indulges in Al-'Uboodiyah to them equivalent to the level of his heart's attachment to them even though he, in appearance, is their master who manages matters for them and administers over them. The sane person should look at the realities (the heart of the matter) and not at the appearance of the matter.
Obsession of the Heart
Whoever's body is subdued, enslaved and captivated will not care so long as his heart is reassured and is serene. In this way, it is possible for him to escape.
The 'Uboodiyah of the heart and its captivity form the basis on which good reward or bad punishment will be incurred:
If a Muslim is captivated by a kaafir or is enslaved by a profligate and given no rights, it will not harm him so long as he can fulfill his duties to Allaah.
Whoever is lawfully subdued and fulfills the rights of Allaah and the rights of his master will be rewarded twice. Even if he is forced to pronounce kufr, pronouncing it with his tongue but keeping eemaan in his heart, his utterance will not harm him.
The one whose heart is subdued and becomes an 'Abd for other than Allaah will be harmed by that even if he is a king!
Freedom is the freedom of the heart and al-'Uboodiyah is the 'Uboodiyah of the heart. Similarly well-being is the well-being of the soul. In the Sunnah: Well-being is not how much wealth you have, but it is the well being of the soul.
This is the case when a lawful image has enslaved ones's heart. Whoevers heart is enslaved by an unlawful image will earn a torment more severe than any known torment.
Continuous attachment of the heart without committing al-Faahishah is more harmful for him than it is for the person who commits a sin and repents of it, since after true repentance the attachment and affection vanishes from the heart.
The greatest cause of this affliction is the heart's turning away from Allaah; the heart needs to taste worshipping of Allaah sincerely... someone will not leave a lover except to replace him with someone more beloved or fearing some harm; turn the heart from a corrupt love to a righteous love.
...Thus (did We order) that We might away from him evil and al-Fahshaa.. [Yoosuf ayah 24]
Thus Allaah turns away from his Abd that which could be evil for him from the inclination towards images and attachment to them. He also turns al-Fahshaa away from him when he is sincere to Allaah. Hence, before he tastes the sweetness of al-'Uboodiyah to Allaah and sincerity for Him, he will be forced by his soul to follow its own passion, but once he gets the taste of sincerity and becomes strong in his heart, then his passion will submit to him without any effort.
...Verily, as-Salaat prevents the committing of blatant sins and iIlegal deeds, and the mindfullness of Allaah is greater indeed [Al-Ankaboot ayah 45]
Indeed in as-Salaah there is repulsion of harmful things, i.e. al-Fahshaa and al-Munkar; and there is attainment of a beloved thing, mindfulness of Allaah. The attainment of this beloved thing is greater than the repulsion of the harmful things. Indeed, the mindfulness of Allaah is, by itself, a worship of Allah; and the heart's worship of Allaah is sought for itself whereas the repulsion of evil from the heart is sought for other than itself . Instead, it is needed for something else.
Indeed he succeeds who sanctifies it (his own soul), and he fails who corrupts it (his own soul). [Ash Shams ayaat 9-10]
Indeed, he shall achieve success who sanctifies himself and is mindful of the Name of Allaah and performs Salaat. [Al-Alaa ayaat 14-15]
Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and protect their private parts from sins. That is more sanctifiying for them...[An-Noor ayah 30]
...And had it not been for the Grace of Allaah and His Mercy on you, not one of you would ever have been sanctified... [An-Noor ayah 21]
Thus the sanctification of the soul comprises getting rid of all evils including blatant sins, injustice, shirk, and lying.
Thus he who seeks leadership becomes the slave of his people in reality! Both manifest worship of each other and both have gone away from His true worship. Hence each one who was a slave and obsessed by his passion becomes subdued by the other! Imagine if their mutual help is for an unjust dominion.
Same for one who strives for wealth. Wealth is of two types:
One type is that for which al-'Abd has a need, such as food, drink, housing and marital life. This type shold be asked for from Allaah and should be sought for His pleasure. Thus, this wealth, which a person uses for his needs, is of the same level as his donkey, which he rides, or his mat, on which he sits. Furthermore, it should be regarded on the same level as a water closet, in which he satisfies his need without becoming subdued or dismayed by it.
Irritable (disorientented) when evil touches him, and niggardly when good touches him. [Al-Ma'aarij ayaat 20-21]
The other type of wealth is that which al-'Abd does not need for his necessities. He should not attach his heart to this type of wealth.
Thus the first hadeeth. This person is indeed a slave of those objects. He asks Allaah for them, if granted he is pleased, but if denied he is upset. However the true 'Abd of Allaah is the one who is pleased with what Allaah and His Rasool love and hates what is hated by Allaah and His Rasool and will make allegiance with Awliyaa Allaah and take for enemies the enemies of Allaah.
The Messenger (S) said, "Whoever loves for Allaah, hates for Allaah, gives for Allaah and denies for Allaah has indeed completed al-Eemaan." [Abu Daawood with good isnaad. See Silsilat Al-Ahaadeeth As Saheehah No. 379]
The Messenger (S) said, "The most strong of Al- Eemaan's ties is love in the sake of Allaah and hate in the sake of Allaah." [Hadeeth Hasan extracted by Ahmad and at-Tabaraanee]
Signs of Love
Allaah has established two signs for people who love Him:
Al-Jihaad fee sabeelillaah;
This is because the reality of al-Jihaad is the striving to accomplish that which Allaah loves of imaan and the righteous deeds, and the repulsion of that which Allaah hates of al-Kufr, al-Fusooq and disobedience.
Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, your wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwelling in which you delight are dearer to you than Allaah and His Messenger and striving hard and fighting in his cause, then wait until Allaah brings about His decision (torment), and Allaah guides not rebellious folk. [Soorah al-Tawbah ayah 24]
The Messenger said, By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, no one among you will believe until I become more beloved to him than his children, his parents and all mankind together. [Bukhaaree & Muslim]
'Umar ibn al-Khattaab (RA) said, "O Messenger of Allaah, you are more beloved to me than anything else except myself" Then the Messenger of Allaah said, "No, O 'Umar! Until I become more beloved to you than yourself." 'Umar (RA) then replied, "Then, by Allaah, you are more beloved to me than my own self," then the Messenger of Allaah said, "Now, O 'Umar." [Bukhaaree & Muslim]
The reality of loving someone is never complete except by having loyalty to the beloved one, that is, to comply with him by loving what he loves and hating what he hates.
Love motivates the will of the heart. The stronger the love, the more the heart seeks the accomplishment of the beloved things. If love is to be complete, it will require a firm will in achieving beloved things.
The Messenger said, "Whoever calls for guidance will have a reward similar to the reward of those who follow him, without diminishing any of their reward. And whoever calls for misguidence will have a burden similar to the burdens of those who follow him, without diminshing any of their reward." [Muslim]
The Messenger said, "Verily, in Al-Madeenah there are men who never embarked on a jouney nor passed a valley but they were with you." The Sahaabah said, "And they are still in Al-Madeenah?" He said, "Yes, and they are still in Al- Madeenah; they were prevented (from travelling with you) by their excuse." [Bukhaaree & Muslim]
If al-'abd abandons that which he is able to do of al- Jihaad it becomes an indication of the weak love.
Beloved goals cannot be attained except by enduring hateful consequences regardless of whether the love is righteous or corrupt.
If those who love Allaah and His Messenger do not endure ... it shows his weak love.
Mu'min has more love for Allaah as He Ta'aala said:
And of mankind are some who take (for wonship) others besides Allaah as rivals (to Allaah). They love them as they love Allaah. But those who believe love Allaah more (than anything else). If only, those who do wrong had but known, when they see the torment, that all power belongs to Allaah and that Allaah is severe in punishment. [Soorah Al-Baqarah ayah 165]
The lover, because of weakness of mind and corrupt reasoning, may take a route that will not reach the desired goal. Such a route is not praised even if the love itself is righteous and praise-worthy. Then, what if the love is faulty and the route is a dead end?
The heart is inherently in need of Allaah from two aspects
worship; this is the purposive motive;
seeking help & reliance; this is the effective motive;
The heart will not be righteous, successful, contented, pleased, assured except by the worship of Allaah, love of Him and repentance to Him, because it has an inherent need for its Lord.
This will never occur except by the help of Allaah.
It is You we worship, and it is from You we seek help. [Soorah Al-Faatihah ayah 5]
He will never escape the pains of this world and its distress except by making his love sincere and pure for Allaah in such a way as to make Allaah his ultimate desire and the end of his every intention.
If he strives to attain a goal but isn't seeking help from Allaah, relying on Him and depending on Him to achieve it, then he will never gain this true love. For that which Allaah wills will be, and that which He does not will will not be.
The strongest and the most guided are the ones who are most perfect in their 'Uboodiyah to Allaah.
The one who submits to Him and to others is a Mushrik. The one who refuses to submit to Him is a Mustakbir (disdainful).
The Messenger said, "Whoever has in his heart an atom's weight of kibr (disdainfulness) will not enter al-Jannah" [Muslim]
Allaah has made al-kibr the opposite of al-eemaan, for al-kibr negates the reality of al-'uboodiyah.
The heart will not dispense with all created beings unless and until Allaah becomes its Lord other than Whom it does not worship.
Ash-Shirk is more dominant among the Christians, while al-Kibr is more dominant among the Jews
As regards the Christians:
They took their priests and their monks to be their lords beside Allaah, and (they also took as Lord) al- Masseh son of Mary, while they were commanded to worship none but one deity. None has the right to be worshipped but Him. Praise and Glory be to him Who is far from having partners they associate (with Him). [Soorah Al-Tawbah ayah 31]
As regards the Jews:
...Is it that whenever there comes to you a messenger with what you yourselves desire not, you treat him with disdain? Some you disbelieve in and some you kill.[Soorah Al-Baqarah ayah 87]
I shall turn away from My Signs those who behave arrogantly on the earth in a wrongful manner, and (even) if they see all the Signs they will not believe in them. And if they see the way of righteousness they will not adopt it as the way, but if they see the way of error, they will adopt that way ... [Soorah Al-A'raaf ayah 146]
Al-Kibr necessarily implies Ash-Shirk, and Ash-Shirk is the counterpart of Al-Islaam, it being the sin which Allaah will never forgive.
Verily Allaah forgives not that rivals should be set up in worship with Him, but He forgives whomever He pleases sins other than that, and whoever sets up rivals in worship with Allaah, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin. [Soorah An-Nisaa' ayah 48]
Verily Allaah forgives not that rivals should be set up in worship with Him but He forgives whomever He pleases other than that, and whoever sets up rivals in worship with Allah, indeed he has strayed far away. [Soorah An-Nisaa' ayah 116]
Hence all the prophets were sent with the Deen of al- Islaam, it being the only Deen acceptable to Allaah.
And if you turn away, I have not asked you for a reward; verily, my reward is only with Allaah. And I have been commanded to be of those who submit to Allaah. [Soorah Yoonus ayah 72]
And who disliked the religion of Abraham except one who fools himself? And We had chosen him in this world; and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous. When his Lord said to him: Submit! He said I submit to the Lord of the Worlds ... Therefore, do not die except that you are Muslims. [Soorah Al-Baqarah ayaat 130-132]
... Take my soul as the one that submits and admit me among the righteous [Soorah Yoosuf ayah 101]
... O my people, if you would believe in Allaah then put your trust in Him; if you are truely Muslims.Then they said: We do put our trust in Allaah [Soorah Yoonus ayaat 84-85]
The Messenger said, Allaah says, "Al-'Adthamah (majesty) is My loincloth and Al-Kibriyaa (grandeur) is My garment. Thus, I shall punish whoever challenges Me concerning either of them" [Muslim & Abu Daawood]
Majesty and Grandeur are the peculiarities of Lordship, and Grandeur is of a higher level than Majesty. For this reason He put it at the rank of a garment just as He put majesty at the rank of a loincloth.
That is why the motto (Allaahu-Akbar) of Salah, Adhaan, Takbeer of.'Eid. Takbeer is also favoured in high places such as Safaa & Marwah, and when a man ascends or mounts and animal. Also shaitaan runs away when adhaan is called.
And your Lord said: Call upon Me, and I shall respond to your (invocation). Verily those who disdain My woship will surely enter Jahannam in humiliation! [Soorah AI-Ghaafir ayah 60]
Whoever disdains the worship of Allaah surely must worship other than Him, because man is susceptible to mobilisation by his will.
The Messenger said "The most trustworthy of names are Haarith and Hammaam."[Abu Daawood & Nasaa'ee]
Haarith is the cultivator who is an active earner (provider) and Hammaam is the one who is effective from the onset of intention. For intention is the beginning of the will. Man always has a will; and for every will there must be that which is willed and that toward which it aims. Then necessarily there is for each 'abd a willed, beloved objective, which is the aim of his love and will. Therefore, whoever does not have Allaah as his ma'bood (the worshipped one) then the aim of his love and will disdains to do so. He must necessarily have another as a willed beloved one, worshipping him rather than Allaah. he is then an 'abd for that willed, beloved one, which could be wealth, fame, appearance, or whatever he takes as a deity for worship rather than Allaah.
If man is an 'abd for other than Allaah, then he is surely a mushrik, and every mustakbir is a mushrik. That is why Pharaoh was one of the greatest creatures as to istikbaar.
And indeed We sent Moosa with Our Signs and a manifest authority to Pharoah, Haamaan and Qaaroon, but they called him a sorcerer, a liar! Moosa said: Verily! I seek refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant one who believes not in the Day of Rekoning... Thus Allah seals up every arrogant tyrannous heart. [Soorah Al-Mu'min ayaat 23-25]
And (We destroyed) Qaaroon, Pharaoh and Haamaan. Moosa came to them with clear signs but they were arrogant in the land, yet they could not outstrip Us (ie., escape from Our punnishment). [Soorah Al- 'Ankaboot ayah 39]
Verily Pharoah exalted himself in the earth and broke up its people into sections, oppresing a group among them, killing their sons and humiliating their women... [Soorah Al-Qasas ayah 4]
And they denied them (those signs) wrongfully and arrogantly, though their souls were convinced thereof then see what was the end of the mischief- makers. [Soorah An-Naml ayah 14]
The greater his istikbaar the greater will be his shirk. He becomes a mushrik by means of that in which he becomes enthralled. See Pharaoh described with Shirk in Sooratul-A'raaf ayah 127.
Verily, We revealed the Torah, in which was guidance and light, and by which the prophets who submitted judged the Jews... [Sooarh Al-Maa'idah ayah 44]
... O my Lord, I have indeed wronged my soul, now I submit with Sulaymaan to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds. [Soorah An-Naml ayah 44]
And when I inspired the Disciples to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said We believe! Then bear witness that we are Muslims. [Soorah Al-Maa'idah ayah 111]
Verily the religion with Allaah is Al-Islaam; [Soorah Aal-'Imraan ayah 19]
And whoever seeks other than Al-Islaam as a religion, it will not be accepted from him ... [Soorah Aal-'Imraan ayah 85]
Then do they seek other than the religion of Allaah when whatever is in the heavens and the earth submits to Him, willingly or unwillingly; and to Him they shall be returned. [Soorah Aal-lmraan ayah 83]
Among all creation there is no one single means which can independently generate any good or ward off any evil. Rather, any cause or means is in need of another cause or means which will help it and repel any harm which opposes it and works against it.
Say, "Tell me then, the things that you invoke besides Allaah, if Allaah intended some harm for me, could they remove His harm, or if He intended some Mercy for me, could they stop His Mercy?" Say, "Sufficient is Allaah for me! Those who trust in Him (Alone). [Soorah Az-Zumar ayah 38]
And if Allaah touches you with a harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good; then He is Able to do all things. [Soorah Al-An'aam ayah 17]